Adenoids are one of the most common ENT pathologies in childhood. From a morphological point of view, this disease is manifested by hypertrophy (excessive growth) of the lymphoid tissue of the nasopharyngeal tonsil. In the vast majority of cases, this phenomenon is diagnosed in children aged three to ten years, but there are exceptions. In this article, we will look at adenoids in the nose of a child in terms of symptoms and treatment.
How do adenoids appear in children?
First of all, we note that the severity of concomitant symptoms will depend on the degree of proliferation of lymphoid tissue.
The primary clinical sign is a violation of nasal breathing. It is difficult for children with this disease to breathe through the nose, sometimes nasal breathing becomes almost impossible (with the third degree of hypertrophy). Often this pathology is complicated by secondary persistent rhinitis, which further impairs the respiratory function.
As a result of difficulty breathing through the nose, such children sleep with their mouths open, usually snore, and often wake up. Due to inadequate sleep, a child with adenoids becomes lethargic during the daytime, gets tired quickly, has difficulty perceiving new information, begins to lag behind in learning, and often suffers from headaches.
In the event that timely treatment is not carried out, adenoids can cause various disorders of the facial skeleton and dentition, for example, the occurrence of malocclusion.
In addition, children with adenoids have a nasal tone of voice — a nasal timbre, untoned speech.
In the absence of necessary medical care, adenoids can lead to hearing problems, impaired smell and swallowing function, and the development of chronic inflammatory processes, for example, in the paranasal sinuses.
Basic principles of treatment of adenoids in childhood
As a rule, with the first or second degree of adenoids, conservative tactics are recommended. Note that all treatment should be carried out only under the supervision of a physician.
Such children are advised to regularly rinse the nasal cavity with saline solutions, use vasoconstrictors (no more than 5–7 days). Local anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiseptic agents may also be prescribed.
In addition, inhaled glucocorticosteroids can be used. In 2020, scientists from the National Medical Research Center for Otorhinolaryngology of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency published a paper that proved the possibility of using inhaled glucocorticosteroids in the treatment of children with nasal breathing disorders due to hypertrophy of the nasopharyngeal tonsil.
Additionally, various physiotherapeutic methods are shown, for example, UHF therapy or magnetotherapy.
In the absence of the effect of conservative treatment, as well as in the third degree of hypertrophy, the presence of other indications, for example, a pronounced violation of nasal breathing, surgical intervention is performed — removal of adenoids in children. It can be carried out using both classical and minimally invasive methods.
Otolaryngology / Palchun V.T., Kryukov A.I. - 2001
Inhaled glucocorticosteroids in otorhinolaryngology / Garashchenko T.I., Tarasova G.D. // Medical advice - 2020 - #1